Selection of a circuit-breaker
The choice of a range of circuit-breakers is determined by: the electrical characteristics of the installation, the environment, the loads and a need for remote control, together with the type of telecommunications system envisaged
Choice of a circuit-breaker
The choice of a CB is made in terms of:
- Electrical characteristics (AC or DC, Voltage...) of the installation for which the CB is intended
- Its environment: ambient temperature, in a kiosk or switchboard enclosure, climatic conditions, etc.
- Presumed short-circuit current at the point of installation
- Characteristics of the protected cables, busbars, busbar trunking system and application (distribution, motor...)
- Co-ordination with upstream and/or downstream device: selectivity, cascading, coordination with switch disconnector, contactor...
- Operational specifications: requirements (or not) for remote control and indication and related auxiliary contacts, auxiliary tripping coils, connection
- Installation regulations; in particular: protection against electric shock and thermal effect (See Protection against electric shocks and electrical fires)
- Load characteristics, such as motors, fluorescent lighting, LED ligthing, LV/LV transformers
The following notes relate to the choice LV circuit breaker for use in distribution systems.
Choice of rated current in terms of ambient temperature
The rated current of a circuit breaker is defined for operation at a given ambient temperature, in general:
- 30°C for domestic-type CBs according to IEC 60898 series
- 40°C by default for industrial-type CBs, according to IEC 60947 series. Different value may be proposed however.
Performance of these CBs in a different ambient temperature depends mainly on the technology of their tripping units (see Fig. H37).
Uncompensated thermal magnetic tripping units
Circuit-breakers with uncompensated thermal tripping units have a trip current level that depends on the surrounding temperature
Circuit-breakers with uncompensated thermal tripping elements have a tripping-current level that depends on the surrounding temperature. If the CB is installed in an enclosure, or in a hot location (boiler room, etc.), the current required to trip the CB on overload will be sensibly reduced. When the temperature in which the CB is located exceeds its reference temperature, it will therefore be “derated”. For this reason, CB manufacturers provide tables which indicate factors to apply at temperatures different to the CB reference temperature. It may be noted from typical examples of such tables (see Fig. H39) that a lower temperature than the reference value produces an up-rating of the CB. Moreover, small modular-type CBs mounted in juxtaposition, as shown typically in Figure H24, are usually mounted in a small closed metal case. In this situation, mutual heating, when passing normal load currents, generally requires them to be derated by a factor of 0.8.
What rating (In) should be selected for a iC60 N?
- Protecting a circuit, the maximum load current of which is estimated to be 34 A
- Installed side-by-side with other CBs in a closed distribution box
- In an ambient temperature of 60 °C
A iC60N circuit breaker rated at 40 A would be derated to 38.2 A in ambient air at 60°C (see Figure H39). To allow for mutual heating in the enclosed space, however, the 0.8 factor noted above must be employed, so that, 38.2 x 0.8 = 30.5 A, which is not suitable for the 34 A load.
A 50 A circuit breaker would therefore be selected, giving a (derated) current rating of 47.6 x 0.8 = 38 A.
Compensated thermal-magnetic tripping units
These tripping units include a bi-metal compensating strip which allows the overload trip-current setting (Ir or Irth) to be adjusted, within a specified range, irrespective of the ambient temperature.
- In certain countries, the TT system is standard on LV distribution systems, and domestic (and similar) installations are protected at the service position by a circuit-breaker provided by the supply authority. This CB, besides affording protection against indirect-contact hazard, will trip on overload; in this case, if the consumer exceeds the current level stated in his supply contract with the power authority. The circuit-breaker (≤ 60 A) is compensated for a temperature range of - 5 °C to + 40 °C.
- LV circuit-breakers at ratings ≤ 630 A are commonly equipped with compensated tripping units for this range (- 5 °C to + 40 °C)
Examples of tables giving the derated/uprated current values according to temperature, for circuit-breakers with uncompensated thermal tripping units
Circuit breaker thermal characteristics are given considering the section and type of conductor (Cu or Al) according to IEC60947-1 Table 9 & 10 and IEC60898-1 & 2 Table 10
iC60 (IEC 60947-2)
|Rating||Ambient temperature (°C)|
Compact NSX100-250 equipped with TM-D or TM-G trip units
|Rating||Ambient temperature (°C)|
Electronic trip units
Electronic tripping units are highly stable in changing temperature levels
An important advantage with electronic tripping units is their stable performance in changing temperature conditions. However, the switchgear itself often imposes operational limits in elevated temperatures, so that manufacturers generally provide an operating chart relating the maximum values of permissible trip-current levels to the ambient temperature (see Fig. H40).
Moreover, electronic trip units can provide information that can be used for a better management of the electrical distribution, including energy efficiency and power quality.
|Type of Drawout Masterpact||MTZ2 N1 - H1 - H2 - H3 -L1 -H10|
|Ambient temperature (°C)|
|In front or rear horizontal||40||800||1000||1250||1600||2000||2000|
|In rear vertical||40||800||1000||1250||1600||2000||2000|
Selection of an instantaneous, or short-time-delay, tripping threshold
Figure H41 below summarizes the main characteristics of the instantaneous or short-time delay trip units.
Selection of a circuit breaker according to the presumed short-circuit current
The installation of a LV circuit-breaker requires that its short-circuit breaking capacity (or that of the CB together with an associated device) be equal to or exceeds the calculated prospective short-circuit current at its point of installation
The installation of a circuit-breaker in a LV installation must fulfil one of the two following conditions:
- Either have a rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icu (or Icn) which is equal to or exceeds the prospective short-circuit current calculated for its point of installation, or
- If this is not the case, be associated with another device which is located upstream, and which has the required short-circuit breaking capacity
In the second case, the characteristics of the two devices must be co-ordinated such that the energy permitted to pass through the upstream device must not exceed that which the downstream device and all associated cables, wires and other components can withstand, without being damaged in any way. This technique is profitably employed in:
- Associations of fuses and circuit-breakers
- Associations of current-limiting circuit-breakers and standard circuit-breakers.
The technique is known as “cascading” (see Coordination between circuit-breakers)
Circuit breakers suitable for IT systems
In IT system, circuit breakers may have to face an unusual situation called double earth fault when a second fault to earth occurs in presence of a first fault on the opposite side of a circuit breaker (see Figure H42 ).
In that case circuit breaker has to clear the fault with phase to phase voltage across a single pole instead of phase to neutral voltage. Breaking capacity of the breaker may be modified in such a situation.
Annex H of IEC60947-2 deals with this situation and circuit breaker used in IT system shall have been tested according to this annex.
When a circuit-breaker has not been tested according to this annex, a marking by the symbol shall be used on the nameplate.
Regulation in some countries may add additional requirements.
Selection of circuit breakers as main incomer and feeders
Installation supplied by one transformer
If the transformer is located in a consumer’s substation, certain national standards require a LV circuit breaker in which the open contacts are clearly visible such as withdrawable circuit breaker.
(see Fig. H43)
What type of circuit-breaker is suitable for the main circuit-breaker of an installation supplied through a 250 kVA MV/LV (400 V) 3-phase transformer in a consumer’s substation?
In transformer = 360 A
Isc (3-phase) = 9 kA
A Compact NSX400N with an adjustable tripping-unit range of 160 A - 400 A and a short-circuit breaking capacity (Icu) of 50 kA would be a suitable choice for this duty.
Installation supplied by several transformers in parallel
(see Fig. H44)
- The feeder circuit breakers CBP must each be capable of breaking the total fault current from all transformers connected to the busbars: Isc1 + Isc2 + Isc3
- The main incomer circuit breakers CBM, must be capable of dealing with a maximum short-circuit current of (for example) Isc2 + Isc3 only, for a short-circuit located on the upstream side of CBM1.
From these considerations, it will be seen that the circuit-breaker of the smallest transformer will be subjected to the highest level of fault current in these circumstances, while the circuit-breaker of the largest transformer will pass the lowest level of short-circuit current
- The ratings of CBMs must be chosen according to the kVA ratings of the associated transformers
Note: The essential conditions for the successful operation of 3-phase transformers in parallel may be summarized as follows:
1. the phase shift of the voltages, primary to secondary, must be the same in all units to be paralleled.
2. the open-circuit voltage ratios, primary to secondary, must be the same in all units.
3. the short-circuit impedance voltage (Zsc%) must be the same for all units.
For example, a 750 kVA transformer with a Zsc = 6% will share the load correctly with a 1,000 kVA transformer having a Zsc of 6%, i.e. the transformers will be loaded automatically in proportion to their kVA ratings. For transformers having a ratio of kVA ratings exceeding 2, parallel operation is not recommended.
Figure H46 indicates, for the most usual arrangement (2 or 3 transformers of equal kVA ratings) the maximum short-circuit currents to which main and principal CBs (CBM and CBP respectively, in Figure H45) are subjected. It is based on the following hypotheses:
- The short-circuit 3-phase power on the MV side of the transformer is 500 MVA
- The transformers are standard 20/0.4 kV distribution-type units rated as listed
- The cables from each transformer to its LV circuit-breaker comprise 5 metres of single core conductors
- Between each incoming-circuit CBM and each outgoing-circuit CBP there is 1 metre of busbar
- The switchgear is installed in a floormounted enclosed switchboard, in an ambient-air temperature of 30 °C
(see Figure H45)
Circuit-breaker selection for CBM duty
For a 800 kVA transformer In = 1155 A; Icu (minimum) = 38 kA (from Figure H46), the CBM indicated in the table is a Compact NS1250N (Icu = 50 kA)
Circuit-breaker selection for CBP duty
The s.c. breaking capacity (Icu) required for these circuit-breakers is given in the Figure H46 as 56 kA.
A recommended choice for the three outgoing circuits 1, 2 and 3 would be current-limiting circuit-breakers types NSX400 H, NSX250 H and NSX100 H. The Icu rating in each case = 70 kA.
These circuit-breakers provide the advantages of:
- Total selectivity with the upstream (CBM) breakers
- Exploitation of the “cascading” technique, with its associated savings for all downstream components
|Number and kVA ratings of 20/0.4 kV transformers||Minimum S.C breaking capacity of main CBs (Icu) kA||Main circuit breakers (CBM) total selectivity with outgoing circuit breakers (CBP)||Minimum S.C breaking capacity of principal CBs (Icu) kA||Rated current In of principal circuit breaker (CPB) 250A|
|2 X 400||14||MTZ1 08H1 / MTZ2 08N1 / NS800N||28||NSX100-630F|
|3 X 400||28||MTZ1 08H1 / MTZ2 08N1 / NS800N||42||NSX100-630N|
|2 X 630||22||MTZ1 10H1 / MTZ2 10N1 / NS1000N||44||NSX100-630N|
|3 X 630||44||MTZ1 10H2 / MTZ2 10N1 / NS1000N||66||NSX100-630S|
|2 X 800||19||MTZ1 12H1 / MTZ2 12N1 / NS1250N||38||NSX100-630N|
|3 X 800||38||MTZ1 12H1 / MTZ2 12N1 / NS1250N||57||NSX100-630H|
|2 X 1000||23||MTZ1 16H1 / MTZ2 16N1 / NS1600N||46||NSX100-630N|
|3 X 1000||46||MTZ1 16H2 / MTZ2 16H1 / NS1600N||69||NSX100-630H|
|2 X 1250||29||MTZ2 20N1/NS2000N||58||NSX100-630H|
|3 X 1250||58||MTZ2 20H1/NS2000N||87||NSX100-630S|
|2 X 1600||36||MTZ2 25N1/NS2500N||72||NSX100-630S|
|3 X 1600||72||MTZ2 25H2/NS2500H||108||NSX100-630L|
|2 X 2000||45||MTZ2 32H1/NS3200N||90||NSX100-630S|
|3 X 2000||90||MTZ2 32H2||135||NSX100-630L|
Selection of feeder CBs and final-circuit CBs
Short-circuit fault-current levels at any point in an installation may be obtained from tables
Use of Table G42
From this table, the value of 3-phase short-circuit current can be determined rapidly for any point in the installation, knowing:
- The value of short-circuit current at a point upstream of that intended for the CB concerned
- The length, c.s.a., and the composition of the conductors between the two points
A circuit breaker rated for a short-circuit breaking capacity exceeding the tabulated value may then be selected.
Detailed calculation of the short-circuit current level
In order to calculate more precisely the short-circuit current, notably, when the short-circuit current-breaking capacity of a CB is slightly less than that derived from the table, it is necessary to use the method indicated in Short-circuit current.
Two-pole circuit breakers (for phase and neutral) with one protected pole only
These CBs are generally provided with an overcurrent protective device on the phase pole only, and may be used in TT, TN-S and IT schemes. In an IT scheme, however, the following conditions must be respected:
- Condition (B) of table in Figure G68 for the protection of the neutral conductor against overcurrent in the case of a double fault
- Short-circuit current-breaking rating: a 2-pole phase-neutral CB must be capable of breaking on one pole (at the phase-to-phase voltage) the current of a double fault
- Protection against indirect contact: this protection is provided according to the rules for IT schemes