Other characteristics of a circuit-breaker
Rated insulation voltage (Ui)
This is the value of voltage to which the dielectric tests voltage (generally greater than 2 Ui) and creepage distances are referred to.
The maximum value of rated operational voltage must never exceed that of the rated insulation voltage, i.e. Ue ≤ Ui.
Rated impulse-withstand voltage (Uimp)
This characteristic expresses, in kV peak (of a prescribed form and polarity) the value of voltage which the equipment is capable of withstanding without failure, under test conditions.
Generally, for industrial circuit-breakers, Uimp = 8 kV and for domestic types, Uimp = 6 kV.
Selectivity categories and rated short-time withstand current (Icw)
IEC 60947-2 defines two types of circuit breaker defined by their “selectivity category”:
- Selectivity category B comprises circuit breakers providing selectivity by having a short-time withstand current rating and an associated short-time delay. For this category of circuit breaker, manufacturer shall provide the value of short-circuit current (Icw) that can be withstood for a specified time.
It is possible to delay the tripping of this type circuit breaker, where the fault-current level is lower than this short-time withstand current rating (Icw) (see Figure H32).
This is generally applied to power open type or “Air” circuit breakers and to certain heavy-duty molded-case types. Icw is the maximum current that the B category circuit breaker can withstand, thermally and electrodynamically, without sustaining damage, for a period of time given by the manufacturer.
- Selectivity category A comprises all other circuit breakers. This category of circuit breaker has no deliberate delay in the operation of the “instantaneous” short-circuit magnetic tripping device (see Figure H33). Usually molded-case type circuit breakers or modular circuit breaker are category A These circuit breakers may provide selectivity under short-circuit conditions by other means. But manufacturer will not provide Icw value.
Rated making capacity (Icm)
Icm is the highest instantaneous value of current that the circuit-breaker can establish at rated voltage in specified conditions. In AC systems this instantaneous peak value is related to Icu (i.e. to the rated breaking current) by the factor k, which depends on the power factor (cos φ) of the short-circuit current loop (as shown in Figure H34 ).
|Icu||cosφ||Icm = kIcu|
|6 kA < Icu ≤ 10 kA||0.5||1.7 x Icu|
|10 kA < Icu ≤ 20 kA||0.3||2 x Icu|
|20 kA < Icu ≤ 50 kA||0.25||2.1 x Icu|
|50 kA ≤ Icu||0.2||2.2 x Icu|
Example: A Masterpact NW08H2 circuit-breaker has a rated breaking capacity Icu of 100 kA. The peak value of its rated making capacity Icm will be 100 x 2.2 = 220 kA.
Rated service short-circuit breaking capacity (Ics)
The rated breaking capacity (Icu) or (Icn) is the maximum fault-current a circuit-breaker can successfully interrupt without being damaged. The probability of such a current occurring is extremely low, and in normal circumstances the fault-currents are considerably less than the rated breaking capacity (Icu) of the CB. On the other hand it is important that high currents (of low probability) be interrupted under good conditions, so that the CB is immediately available for reclosure, after the faulty circuit has been repaired. It is for these reasons that a new characteristic (Ics) has been created, expressed as a percentage of Icu, viz: 25, 50, 75, 100% for industrial circuit-breakers. The standard test sequence is as follows:
- O - CO - CO (at Ics)
- Tests carried out following this sequence are intended to verify that the CB is in a good state and available for normal service
For domestic CBs, Ics = k Icn. The factor k values are given in IEC 60898 table XIV.
In Europe it is the industrial practice to use a k factor of 100% so that Ics = Icu.
Many designs of LV circuit-breakers feature a short-circuit current limitation capability, whereby the current is reduced and prevented from reaching its (otherwise) maximum peak value (see Figure H35). The current-limitation performance of these CBs is presented in the form of graphs, typified by that shown in Figure H36, diagram (a)
The fault-current limitation capacity of a CB concerns its ability, more or less effective, in preventing the passage of the maximum prospective fault-current, permitting only a limited amount of current to flow, as shown in Figure H35.
The current-limitation performance is given by the CB manufacturer in the form of curves (see Fig. H36).
- Diagram (a) shows the limited peak value of current plotted against the rms value of the AC component of the prospective fault current (“prospective” fault-current refers to the fault-current which would flow if the CB had no current-limiting capability)
- Limitation of the current greatly reduces the thermal stresses (proportional I2t) and this is shown by the curve of diagram (b) of Figure H36, again, versus the rms value of the AC component of the prospective fault current.
LV circuit-breakers for domestic and similar installations are classified in certain standards (notably European Standard EN 60 898). CBs belonging to one class (of current limiters) have standardized limiting I2t let-through characteristics defined by that class.
In these cases, manufacturers do not normally provide characteristic performance curves.
The advantages of current limitation
Current limitation reduces both thermal and electrodynamic stresses on all circuit elements through which the current passes, thereby prolonging the useful life of these elements. Furthermore, the limitation feature allows “cascading” techniques to be used (see Coordination between circuit-breakers) thereby significantly reducing design and installation costs
The use of current-limiting CBs affords numerous advantages:
- Better conservation of installation networks: current-limiting CBs strongly attenuate all harmful effects associated with short-circuit currents
- Reduction of thermal effects: Conductors (and therefore insulation) heating is significantly reduced, so that the life of cables is correspondingly increased
- Reduction of mechanical effects: forces due to electromagnetic repulsion are lower, with less risk of deformation and possible rupture, excessive burning of contacts, etc.
- Reduction of electromagnetic-interference effects:
- Less influence on measuring instruments and associated circuits, telecommunication systems, etc.
These circuit-breakers therefore contribute towards an improved exploitation of:
- Cables and wiring
- Prefabricated cable-trunking systems
- Switchgear, thereby reducing the ageing of the installation
On a system having a prospective shortcircuit current of 150 kA rms, a Compact L circuit-breaker limits the peak current to less than 10% of the calculated prospective peak value, and the thermal effects to less than 1% of those calculated.
Cascading of the several levels of distribution in an installation, downstream of a limiting CB, will also result in important savings.
The technique of cascading allows, in fact, substantial savings on switchgear (lower performance permissible downstream of the limiting CB(s)) enclosures, and design studies, of up to 20% (overall).
Selective protection schemes and cascading are compatible, in the Compact NSX range, up to the full short-circuit breaking capacity of the switchgear.
- ^ O represents an opening operation.
CO represents a closing operation followed by an opening operation.