Residential electrical installation - Distribution boards components
From Electrical Installation Guide
(see Fig. Q1)
The quality of electrical equipment used in residential premises is commonly ensured by a mark of conformity situated on the front of each item
Distribution boards (generally only one in residential premises) usually include the meter(s) and in some cases (notably where the supply utilities impose a TT earthing system and/or tariff conditions which limit the maximum permitted current consumption) an incoming supply differential circuit-breaker which includes an overcurrent trip. This circuit-breaker is freely accessible to the consumer.
Fig. Q1: Presentation of realizable functions on a consumer unit
On installations which are TN earthed, the supply utilities usually protect the installation simply by means of sealed fuse cut-outs immediately upstream of the meter(s) (see Fig. Q2). The consumer has no access to these fuses.
Fig. Q2: Components of a control and distribution board
The incoming supply circuit-breaker
(see Fig. Q3)
The consumer is allowed to operate this CB if necessary (for example, if the incoming CB trips because the current consumption has exceeded the authorized limit, the consumer may have to reclose it. The consumer may also have to open it in case of emergency or for isolation purposes).
The rated residual current of the incoming circuit-breaker in the earth leakage protection shall be 300 mA.
If the installation is TT, the earth electrode resistance shall be less than
In practice, the earth electrode resistance of a new installation shall be less than 80 Ω .
Fig. Q3: Incoming-supply circuit-breaker
The control and distribution board (consumer unit)
(see Fig. Q4)
This board comprises:
- A control panel for mounting (where appropriate) the incoming supply circuit-breaker and other control auxiliaries, as required
- A distribution panel for housing 1, 2 or 3 rows (of 24 Acti 9 units) or similar MCBs or fuse units, etc.
- Installation accessories for fixing conductors, and rails for mounting MCBs, fuses bases, etc, neutral busbar and earthing bar, and so on
- Service cable ducts or conduits, surface mounted or in cable chases embedded in the wall
Note: to facilitate future modifications to the installation, it is recommended to keep all relevant documents (photos, diagrams, characteristics, etc.) in a suitable location close to the distribution board.
The board should be installed at a height such that the operating handles, indicating dials (of meters) etc., are between 1 metre and 1.80 metres from the floor (1.30 metres in situations where handicapped or elderly people are concerned).
Fig. Q4: Control and distribution board
The installation of lightning arresters at the service position of a LV installation is strongly recommended for installations which include sensitive (e.g electronic) equipment.
These devices must automatically disconnect themselves from the installation in case of failure or be protected by a MCB. In the case of residential installations, the use of a 300 mA differential incoming supply circuit-breaker type S (i.e slightly time-delayed) will provide effective earth leakage protection, while, at the same time, will not trip unnecessarily each time a lightning arrester discharges the current (of an overvoltage-surge) to earth.
Resistance value of the earth electrode
If, in a TT scheme, the value of 80 Ω for the resistance of the electrode can not be met then, 30 mA RCDs must be installed to take over the function of the earth leakage protection of the incoming supply circuit-breaker
In the case where the resistance to earth exceeds 80 Ω, one or several 30 mA RCDs should be used in place of the earth leakage protection of the incoming supply circuit-breaker.