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Power supply at medium voltage

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General rules of electrical installation design
Connection to the MV utility distribution network
Connection to the LV utility distribution network
MV and LV architecture selection guide for buildings
LV Distribution
Protection against electric shocks and electric fires
Sizing and protection of conductors
LV switchgear: functions and selection
Overvoltage protection
Energy Efficiency in electrical distribution
Power Factor Correction
Power harmonics management
Characteristics of particular sources and loads
PhotoVoltaic (PV) installation
Residential and other special locations
ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

The term "medium voltage" is commonly used for distribution systems with voltages above 1 kV and generally applied up to and including 52 kV [1]. For technical and economic reasons, the service voltage of medium voltage distribution networks rarely exceeds 35 kV.

In this chapter, networks which operate at 1000 V or less are referred to as low voltage (LV) networks.

The connection of an electrical installation to a MV utility distribution network is always realized by means of a dedicated MV substation usually designed "Main substation". Depending on its size and specific criteria mainly related to the loads (Rated voltage, number, power, location, etc…), the installation may include additional substations designed "Secondary substations". The locations of these substations are carefully selected in order to optimize the budget dedicated to MV and LV power cables. They are supplied from the main substation through the internal MV distribution.

Generally, most of the loads are supplied in low voltage by means of MV/LV step down transformers. Large loads such as asynchronous motors above around 1MW are supplied in MV. Only LV loads are considered in this electrical guide.

MV/LV step down power transformers are indifferently located either in the main substation or in the secondary substations. Small installations may only include a single MV/LV transformer installed in the main substation in most of the cases.

A main substation includes five basic functions:

Function 1: Connection to the MV utility network

Function 2: General protection of the installation

Function 3: Supply and protection of MV/LV power transformers located in the substation

Function 4: Supply and protection of the internal MV distribution

Function 5: Metering.

For the installations including a single MV/LV power transformer the general protection and the protection of the transformer are merged.

The metering can be performed either at MV level or at LV level. It is authorized at LV level for any installation including a single MV/LV transformer, provided that the rated power of the transformer remains below the limit fixed by the local utility supplying the installation.

In addition to the functional requirements the construction of both main and secondary substations shall comply with the local standards and rules dedicated to the protection of persons. IEC recommendations should also be taken into consideration in all circumstances.


  1. ^ According to the IEC there is no clear boundary between medium and high voltage. Local and historical factors play a part, and limits are usually between 30 and 100 kV (see IEV 601-01-28). The publication IEC 62271-1 "Highvoltage switchgear and controlgear; common specifications" incorporates a note in its scope: "For the use of this standard, high voltage (see IEV 601-01-27) is the rated voltage above 1000 V. However, the term medium voltage (see IEV 601-01-28) is commonly used for distribution systems with voltages above 1 kV and generally applied up to and including 52 kV.".